Spacer modifcations C3, 9, C12 and 18 are used to insert a spacer arm in an oligonucleotide. These modifications can be added in multiple additions when a longer spacer is required. 3'-Spacer C3 CPG may also act as a blocker of exonuclease and polymerase activity at the 3'-terminus. dSpacer is used to introduce a stable abasic site within an oligonucleotide. See "Photo-Cleavable" modification category for photo-cleavable Spacer.