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Oligo Modifications List | Oligo Modifications Reference Category
Modification : N3-methyl-dC (m3dC)
Reference Catalog Number 26-6903
Category Others
Modification Code m3dC
5 Prime Y
3 Prime Y
Internal Y
Molecular Weight (mw) 847.93
Extinction Coeficient (ec) 7.4
Technical Info (pdf) PS26-6903.pdf
Catalog NoScalePrice
26-6903-0550 nmol$234.00
26-6903-02200 nmol$234.00
26-6903-011 umol$304.20
26-6903-032 umol$456.30
26-6903-1010 umol$2,433.60
26-6903-1515 umol$3,042.00

Discounts are available for N3-methyl-dC (m3dC)!
Modification* Discount Price Structure
1 site/order List price
2 sites/order 10% discount
3 sites/order 20% discount
4 sites/order 30% discount
5-9 sites/order 50% discount
10+ sites/order 60% discount
*Exceptions apply

Related Modifications
N3-Methyl dT (m3dT)
N6-dimethyl rA
N4-Ethyl dC
N3-methyl-dC (m3dC)
N3-methyl-rU (m3U)
N6-Methyl dA (m6dA)
N6-Methyl rA (m6A)
N1-Methyl dA (m1dA)
N1-Methyl rA (m1A)

N3-Methyl deoxycytosine (N3-Me-dC) is a methylated nucleoside base, and is primarily used in the study of DNA damage and repair mechanisms related to alkylation damage. N3-Me-dC lesions are highly toxic and mutagenic in all three domains of life (prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea) (1).The N3-Me-dC lesion is primarily generated by SN2 alkylating reagents such as methyl methane sulfonate (MMS), dimethylsulfate and methyl halides, which react with the N3 position of cytosine (2,3). In cells, N3-methyl-dC acts as a lethal DNA replication block and is highly mutagenic, being 30% mutagenic in AlkB(-) E. coli (mostly C to T and C to A), and 70% mutagenic in E. coli that is both AlkB(-) and expresses SOS bypass enzymes (4,5). N3-Methyl-dC is restored to dC by a novel direct reversal repair mechanism. This mechanism removes the N3-methyl via oxidative demethylation catalyzed by the AlkB protein, and requiring AlkB-bound non-heme Fe(2+), molecular oxygen, and alpha-ketogluterate (6,7).

(1) Leiros, I., Nabong, M.P., Gresvik, K., Ringvoll, J., Haugland, G.T., et al. Structural basis for excision of N1-methyl adenine and N3-methylcytosine from DNA. EMBO J. (2007), 26: 2206-2217.
(2) Sedgwick, B., Lindahl, T. Recent progress on the Ada response for inducible repair of DNA alkylation damage. Oncogene (2002), 21: 8886-8894.
(3) Sedgwick, B. Repairing DNA-methylation damage. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. (2004), 5: 148-157.
(4) Delaney, J.C., Essigman, J.M. Mutagenesis, genotoxicity and repair of 1-methyladenine, 3-alkylcytosines, 1-methylguanine, and 3-methylthymine in alkB Escherichia coli. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) (2004), 101: 14051-14056.
(5) Shrivastav, N., Li, D., Essigmann, J.M. Chemical biology of mutagenesis and DNA repair: cellular responses to DNA alkylation.Carcinogenesis (2010), 31: 59-70.
(6) Chen, B.J., Carroll, P., Samson, I. The Eschericia coli alkB protein protects human cells against alkylation-induced toxicity. J. Bacteriol. (1994), 176: 6255-6261.
(7) Begley, T.J., Samson, L.D. AlkB mystery solved: oxidative demethylation of N1-methyladenine and N3-methylcytosine adducts by a direct reversal mechanism. Trends Biochem. Sci. (2003), 28: 2-5.

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