2’-OMethyl-5-methyl cytosine (2’-OMe-5-Me-C) is an RNA monomer that pairs with G, and when substituted for C in an oligonucleotide, both increases the stability of the resulting duplex relative to the comparable unmodified form, and confers nuclease resistance at that position(1). This “double-methylated”-modified cytosine thus is an excellent choice for incorporation into anti-sense oligos, where both properties are particularly desirable. Furthermore, because anti-sense oligonucleotides containing a CpG motif are known to induce pro-inflammatory responses after in vivo administration to animals, including human, via activation of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), substitution of 2’-OMe-5-Me-dC for C in these motifs can prevent or sharply reduce these undesirable immune responses (2,3).
1. Bundock, P.; de Both, M.T.J.; Hogers, R.C.J. 2006. Alternative nucleotides for improved targeted nucleotide exchange. Patent No. 2007073149, filed Dec 22. 2005, issued June 28, 2007.
2. Henry, S.P.; Stecker, K.; Brooks, D.; Monteith, D.; Conklin, B.; Bennett, C.F. Chemically modified oligonucleotides exhibit decreased immune stimulation in mice. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2000), 292: 468-479.
3. Yu, D.; Wang, D.; Zhu, F.-G.; Bhagat, L.; Dai, M.; Kandimalia, E.R.; Agrawal, S. Modifications Incorporated in CpG Motifs of Oligodeoxynucleotides Lead to Antagonist Activity of Toll-like Receptors 7 and 9. J. Med. Chem. (2009), 52: 5108-5114.